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From: James Harkins <jamshark70@gmail.com>
To: orgmode <emacs-orgmode@gnu.org>
Subject: Seeking advice on a worg contribution
Date: Sun, 04 May 2014 09:38:27 +0800	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <c28a69bf-6161-4fde-8201-139e8f4bc251@dewdrop-world.net> (raw)

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I finally finished a draft (attached, and not carefully proofread yet) of a 
new worg page to outline what I had to do for a big Beamer publishing 
project. Could somebody look it over and advise of any formatting problems? 
I guess it should be basically OK; I copied the standard worg header, and I 
stuck to normal org markup throughout.

A specific formatting question: I have several source code blocks with 
captions. The captions are formatted exactly the same as normal paragraphs. 
Will worg use a different CSS style for captions? If not, what do I have to 
do to make it do that? (At least, display the captions slightly smaller.)


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#+TITLE:     Using Beamer export to produce slideshows and article-style handouts from the same org source
#+AUTHOR:    James Harkins
#+OPTIONS:   H:2 num:nil toc:t \n:nil ::t |:t ^:t -:t f:t *:t
#+OPTIONS:   tex:t d:(HIDE) tags:not-in-toc
#+STARTUP:   fold
#+CATEGORY:   worg

* Project overview

The project is training material for a one-week intensive workshop in audio 
synthesis and live-performance control in the SuperCollider programming 
language. The workshop was commissioned by CHEARS, the China 
ElectroAcoustic Resource Survey, and will be given first in Shenyang, PRC.

I wanted to have thorough presentation slides available, for some kinds of 
explanation that are difficult otherwise, and also give a PDF book to 
workshop attendees for their future reference. During the writing process, 
the book became more important, as a way to provide copyright-free 
tutorials for translation into Chinese. The book eventually grew to 237 
pages (with, admittedly, more white space per page than a standard prose 
layout), rendered from 10849 lines of LaTeX code, all of which were 
generated directly by the org Beamer exporter with no manual edits to any 
of the =tex= files.

Achieving that required some ingenuity in both org mode and LaTeX. This 
worg page documents the project's design and implementation.

* Requirements

- One org source to produce slideshows and printed material.
  - Beamer export for both formats.
    - Normal /beamer/ document class for slides.
    - Document class /article/ for the book, with
      =\usepackage{beamerarticle}= in the preamble.
  - Header files to determine PDF layout.
  - Additional explanatory text that will be omitted from slideshows.
    - Use the beamer class option /ignorenonframetext/ for slides.
    - Put notes under frame-level headings, with the beamer tag

- Indexed glossaries of terms, classes and methods, without writing
  cumbersome LaTeX syntax for the glossaries package.
  - Keep glossary definitions in org tables.
  - Convert to LaTeX syntax using emacs-lisp source blocks.
  - Convert only once in the book combining all chapters, but once per slideshow.

- Extract captioned source blocks into plain-text files for SuperCollider.
  - =org-element-map= did all the hard work.

* Implementation

** One source: File structure
The LaTeX preamble controls the output format; so, to have different output 
from the same org source, the preamble must be separate from the content. 
Here, we have two headers:

- =slidehead.org=, which specifies the document class /beamer/ with
  the /presentation/ option.
- =printhead2.org=, which specifies the /article/ class and adds the
  /beamerarticle/ package so that the article class can interpret
  beamer formatting commands.

Other formatting differences are implemented here. For instance, inline 
code fragments are colored green in the slides, but remain black in the 

Header files contain nothing specific to any chapter, and content files are 
strictly content, no formatting definitions. Neither of these are exported 
directly. The export files provide the title and author fields, and include 
(=#+INCLUDE:=) the appropriate header and content files. They also include 
the glossary file; details to follow.

#+name: slidehead
#+caption: Primary export options for slideshow format.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+startup: beamer
  ,#+LaTeX_CLASS: beamer
  ,#+LaTeX_CLASS_OPTIONS: [ignorenonframetext,presentation]
  ,#+BEAMER_THEME: default

#+name: printhead
#+caption: Primary export options for article format.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+startup: beamer
  ,#+LaTeX_CLASS: article
  ,#+LaTeX_CLASS_OPTIONS: [a4paper,twoside,11pt]
  ,#+BEAMER_THEME: default
  ,#+LATEX_HEADER: \usepackage{beamerarticle}

#+name: contents
#+caption: Beginning of one of the contents files.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+startup: beamer
  ,* Workshop introduction
  ,** Workshop introduction
  ,*** Workshop goals
  ,**** Teach synthesis techniques by experimentation
       - SC lets us take apart synthesizer components, and put them back together.
       - SC's /Just-In-Time library/ makes it easy to re-patch components interactively.
  ,**** Teach techniques for live control and performance
       - Control by graphic interfaces and external devices.
       - End goal: A group composition, to perform together.
  ,**** *Have fun programming!*
       - Emphasis on /play/ over /correctness/.

#+name: slideExport
#+caption: The slideshow document that is actually exported.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+startup: beamer
  ,#+TITLE: SuperCollider Week, Day 1 \\ Introductory SC, Synthesis and Sequencing
  ,#+DATE: \today
  ,#+AUTHOR: H. James Harkins
  ,#+INCLUDE: "../slidehead.org"
  ,#+include: "../glossary.org"
  ,#+include: "./01-contents.org" :minlevel 1

I settled on a project layout like this:

- =shows/= directory
  - =slidehead.org=: LaTeX preamble for Beamer's presentation style
  - =printhead2.org=: Preamble for the article document class, with the beamerarticle package
  - =glossaries.org=: Tables of glossary definitions, and emacs-lisp source blocks for conversion
  - =01-intro/= directory
    - =01-contents.org=: Slide contents, no header info at all
    - =01-slideshow.org=: Defines this chapter's header (title,
      author, etc.), includes =slidehead.org=, =glossaries.org= and
    - =img/= directory (png and PDF files for Part I)
  - =02-synth/= directory, structured like =01=
    Similar directories for chapters 3--6
  - =full-article/= directory
    - =full-article.org=: Defines title etc., includes
      =printhead2.org=, =glossaries.org=, /all/ content files and
      additional sections at the end for glossaries

To render the slides for day 1, I visit =01-slideshow.org= in Emacs
and export to Beamer. The print- or tablet-ready book comes from
=full-article.org=. This should also be exported by the Beamer
backend, even though the document class is /article/. This makes
sense, however; the org source uses Beamer-specific markup which the
normal LaTeX backend will not understand. It's LaTeX itself that
"converts" the format to article through inclusion of the
/beamerarticle/ package.

*** Explanatory prose
Slides minimize the amount of text on one screen, by using shorter, simpler 
sentences in outline layouts. Some issues call for a narrative discussion 
in prose. Prose should /not/ be shown in a slide presentation!

Beamer can omit text from a presentation using the document class option 
/ignorenonframetext/. Text that appears outside of a /frame/ environment 
will be suppressed. The trick is to get org to export text outside of a 
frame, without affecting sectioning.

Org creates a frame when it encounters a headline at the level defined by 
the =H:= export option, and it closes the frame at the next headline at 
this level or higher. This project uses =H:3=, so normally, the contents 
under every third-level headline will be enclosed in begin/end frame tags.

If the headline has the Beamer-specific tag =:B_ignoreheading:=, then the 
heading /and/ the begin/end frame commands are suppressed, but all the 
content appears.

#+name: prose_source
#+caption: Org source, including a paragraph that should appear outside of a frame.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+OPTIONS: H:3 texht:t
  ,#+LaTeX_CLASS: beamer
  ,#+LaTeX_CLASS_OPTIONS: [ignorenonframetext,presentation]
  ,* Section head
  ,** Subsection head
  ,*** Frame title
  ,**** Block header
       - Bullet point.
  ,*** More explanation coming                                 :B_ignoreheading:
      :BEAMER_env: ignoreheading
      Here, we explain points from the previous frame in more
      detail. This text will always appear in the exported LaTeX, but
      the /ignorenonframetext/ class option will prevent it from being
      rendered in the presentation.

#+name: prose_exported
#+caption: The LaTeX export result. Note the absence of begin/end frame commands around the free-standing paragraph.
#+begin_src latex
% Created 2014-05-01 Thu 16:05

\section{Section head}
\subsection{Subsection head}
\begin{frame}[label=sec-1-1-1]{Frame title}
\begin{block}{Block header}
\item Bullet point.

Here, we explain points from the previous frame in more
detail. This text will always appear in the exported \LaTeX{}, but
the \emph{ignorenonframetext} class option will prevent it from being
rendered in the presentation.

*** Problem: Position of =\maketitle= command

Because of /ignorenonframetext/, the LaTeX =\maketitle= command must appear 
in a frame for the slideshows. But, it should /not/ be in a frame for the 
article. Further, we can't distinguish between presentation and article 
based on the org export backend, because both are exported by the Beamer 

In my environment, I used a hack that assumes Beamer has been added to
=org-latex-classes= under the exact string "beamer." This is not
ideal, because a user might have added a custom class under a
different name. Nicolas Goaziou proposed an alternate approach using
regular expressions, but I didn't implement it in my environment.

This code snippet should replace the expression following the comment
=;; 10. Title command= in the function =org-beamer-template=, defined
in ox-beamer.el.

#+name: maketitlehack
#+caption: Hack to put the maketitle command in a frame for the beamer class only.
#+begin_src emacs-lisp
       ;; 10. Title command.
       (let ((titlecmd (org-element-normalize-string
        (cond ((string= "" title) nil)
              ((not (stringp org-latex-title-command)) nil)
              ((string-match "\\(?:[^%]\\|^\\)%s"
               (format org-latex-title-command title))
              (t org-latex-title-command)))))
         (if (string= (plist-get info :latex-class) "beamer")
             (format "\\begin{frame}%s\\end{frame}" titlecmd)

*** Problem: Relative links to images

Image files are stored in =img/= directories under the directory for each 
part. The images must also be accessible from =full-article/=, so simple 
links of the form =./img/filename= will not work. Instead, this form of 
link handles both export locations: =../01-intro/img/filename=.

** Glossaries
The LaTeX /glossaries/ package handled all my requirements: multiple 
glossaries for different categories of terms and automatic indexing of 
references to terms in the text. The syntax of the \newglossaryentry 
command is more verbose than I wanted to manage by hand. Org tables are a 
useful alternative.

I divided glossary entries into four categories: terms and concepts, unit 
generators, other classes, and methods. I used two table structures:

- For UGens: Category (not used), name, description, and list of inputs.
- Others: Term, plural form, description.

The two structures called for two lisp functions; they are essentially the 
same except for the strings generated and the handling of table rows. The 
non-UGen function includes arguments for the table and identifiers to embed 
in the LaTeX syntax, to be supplied in the =#+CALL= lines.

#+name: glossaryTable
#+caption: Part of a glossary table.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+name: gloss
  | Term  | Plural  | Description                                                                                              |
  | ADSR  |         | An Attack-Decay-Sustain-Release envelope                                                                 |
  | proxy | proxies | A placeholder that allows you to define connections between modules independent of each module's content |

#+name: glossaryFunction
#+caption: Function to convert a normal (non-UGen) glossary table into LaTeX markup.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+name: makegloss
  ,#+begin_src emacs-lisp :var tbl=gloss glosstype='nil :exports none :results value latex
    (let ((str "")
          (gltype (if glosstype (format "type=%s," glosstype) "")))
      (pop tbl)
      (pop tbl)
      (while tbl
        (let ((item (pop tbl)))
          (setq str
                (concat str
                        (format "\\newglossaryentry{%s}{%sname={%s},%sdescription={%s}}\n"
                                (car item)
                                (pop item)
                                (let ((plural (pop item)))
                                  (if (string= plural "")
                                    (format "plural={%s}," plural)))
                                (car item))))))

*** Problem: Redundant glossary export in the full article

The two output styles raise some conflicting requirements:

- *Presentation style:* Because of the /ignorenonframetext/ class
  option, the =\newglossaryentry= commands must appear within a
  frame. They cannot go into =slidehead.org=. Each separate contents
  file must include its own calls to the glossary functions.

- *Article style:* The contents files are included in the same export
  file -- which would produce redundant copies of the glossary

This calls for /conditional execution/ of the Babel calls. A
not-quite-obvious feature of Babel properties is that they may be
Emacs-lisp expressions. That leads to a solution: Use a code block at
the beginning of the =0*-slideshow.org= and =full-article.org= files
to set a flag, =hjh-exporting-slides=.

#+name: setflag-slides
#+caption: Setting the slideshow flag for slideshows.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+name: set-slide-flag
  ,#+begin_src emacs-lisp :exports results :results value latex
  (setq hjh-exporting-slides 't)

#+name: setflag-article
#+caption: Setting the slideshow flag for the article.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+name: set-slide-flag
  ,#+begin_src emacs-lisp :exports results :results value latex
  (setq hjh-exporting-slides nil)

Then, the =#+CALL:= lines can use an =(if...)= expression to decide
whether the =:exports= property should be "results" or "none." If this
result is "none," then Babel skips that call. So, each glossary
section evaluates only once per export, no matter how many contents
files are included.

#+name: call-slides
#+caption: Calling the glossary function in a slideshow.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+call: makegloss :exports (if hjh-exporting-slides "results" "none") :results value latex
  ,#+results: makegloss

#+name: call-article
#+caption: Calling the glossary function in the article.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+name: makegloss_art
  ,#+call: makegloss :exports (if hjh-exporting-slides "none" "results") :results value latex
  ,#+results: makegloss_art

*** Output format
By default, org treats CALL results as example blocks. In LaTeX
export, example blocks are wrapped in a /verbatim/ environment. These
functions return LaTeX syntax, to embed into the LaTeX document as
is. Adding "value latex" to the =:results= property takes care of

** Extraction of captioned source code blocks
I also wanted to provide SuperCollider code files containing the
numbered examples from the text. That means iterating over the source
code blocks, and collecting the code from every block that has a
caption. (Code blocks without a caption do not receive a listing

The Swiss-army-knife function =org-element-map= handles the iteration
in a way that is absurdly simple to use: first, use
=org-element-parse-buffer= to get an object structure for the org
buffer's contents, and then call =org-element-map= on the parsed tree,
filtering on ='src-block=.

Each element identified this way is rather complex. Extensive tests
with Emacs step debugging helped me find several processing steps:

1. The interesting bit of the source-block element is the second item
   in the list: =(car (cdr element))=.

2. =plist-get= finds the relevant strings in this second item. But
   this function returns not only the string, but several other
   properties. The string we need is at the head of the list, but this
   may be buried within several nested lists. So I wrote a function,
   =hjh-get-string-from-nested-thing=, that keeps stripping off "car"
   from the object, until it finds a string.

3. This string itself also includes formatting properties, so I had to
   use =substring-no-properties= on these items.

To generate the aggregate code file, then, I simply do =M-x
hjh-src-blocks-to-buffer=, type in the starting listing number for
this chapter, and in a few seconds, I get a buffer containing
SuperCollider code separated by comments holding the captions, e.g.:

#+begin_src {SuperCollider} -i
 Listing 6. A very simple synth.

a = { SinOsc.ar(440, 0, 0.1).dup }.play;

// To make it stop:

#+name: extract
#+caption: Emacs-lisp functions to find captioned source blocks within a buffer.
#+begin_src emacs-lisp -i
(defun hjh-get-string-from-nested-thing (thing)
  "Peel off 'car's from a nested list until the car is a string."
  (while (and thing (not (stringp thing)))
    (setq thing (car thing)))

(defun hjh-src-blocks-to-string (counter get-some)
  "Iterate src blocks from org-element and add them to a string."
  (interactive "nStarting listing number: \nP")
  (when (not counter) (setq counter 1))
  (let ((tree (org-element-parse-buffer))
	(string "")
	(get-all (not get-some)))
    (org-element-map tree 'src-block
      (lambda (element)
	(setq element (car (cdr element)))
	(let ((caption (hjh-get-string-from-nested-thing (plist-get element :caption)))
	      (source (hjh-get-string-from-nested-thing (plist-get element :value))))
	  (when caption
	    (when (or get-all 
		      (let ((parms
			     (hjh-get-string-from-nested-thing (plist-get element :parameters))))
			(and (stringp parms) (string-match-p "extract" parms))))
	      (setq string (concat string (format "/**************
 Listing %d. %s

					  (substring-no-properties caption)
					  (substring-no-properties source)))))
	    ; always increment if there was a caption
	    (setq counter (1+ counter))))))

(defun hjh-src-blocks-to-buffer (counter get-some)
  "Put all the captioned source blocks from a buffer into another buffer."
  (interactive "nStarting listing number: \nP")
  (let* ((contents (hjh-src-blocks-to-string counter get-some))
	 (bufpath (buffer-file-name))
	 (newname (concat (file-name-sans-extension bufpath) ".scd"))
	 (bufname (file-name-nondirectory newname))
	 (newbuf (get-buffer-create bufname)))
    (with-current-buffer newbuf
      (insert contents)
      (set-visited-file-name newname))
    (switch-to-buffer-other-window newbuf)))

# #+begin_comment
# #+name: 
# #+caption: 
# #+begin_src org
# #+end_src
# #+end_comment

** Partitioning the article export
Rather than create a document class to turn top-level headings into =\part= 
commands, I embedded the LaTeX code for it directly into the full-article 
template. The trick is closing the environments for the previous sections. 
This requires a top-level heading, which should not start a new section. I 
found that =:B_ignoreheading:= did not work for this, but an export filter 
by Suvayu Ali[fn:54e951f5] did exactly what I needed.

#+name: articleParts
#+caption: Part of the full-article export document, with embedded LaTeX \part syntax.
#+begin_src org
  ,#+startup: beamer
  ,#+TITLE: Workshop: Synthesis and Performance in SuperCollider
  ,#+DATE: \today
  ,#+AUTHOR: H. James Harkins
  ,#+INCLUDE: "../printhead2.org"
  ,#+include: "../glossary.org"
  ,* Part 1                                                      :ignoreheading:
  ,#+latex: \clearpage\part{Introductory SC, Synthesis and Sequencing}
  ,#+include: "../01-intro/01-contents.org" :minlevel 1
  ,* Part 2                                                      :ignoreheading:
  ,#+latex: \clearpage\part{Sequencing with Patterns; Synthesis Techniques}
  ,#+include: "../02-synth/02-contents.org" :minlevel 1

* Weaknesses
** Reliance on LaTeX-specific markup

One significant problem, which this project did not attempt to solve,
is to reconcile the LaTeX's /semantic markup/ with org's ideal of
backend-independent markup. In LaTeX, it's common to define different
markup commands for different types of text. This project, for
instance, uses =\cd{}= for in-line code snippets and =\ci{}= for code
keywords and identifiers. Both render in the monospace font, in the
same color; by marking them up differently, I can easily change the
formatting of one or the other by changing the command's
definition. (In fact, there is a slight difference: =\ci= identifiers
are put into an =\mbox=, to suppress hyphenation.)

Org's formatting markup is visual: asterisks for bold, slashes for
italics and so on.

I think export macros[fn:5c80275b] could support semantic markup that could export
to LaTeX or HTML equally well, but I didn't investigate that in this
project. Here, I just embedded LaTeX commands directly into the org
files: free standing for simple uses, and using export snippets[fn:448d1164] for
more intricate cases (such as code examples including curly braces,
which LaTeX export treats specially).

* Footnotes

[fn:54e951f5] http://stackoverflow.com/questions/10295177/is-there-an-equivalent-of-org-modes-b-ignoreheading-for-non-beamer-documents

[fn:5c80275b] http://orgmode.org/manual/Macro-replacement.html#Macro-replacement

[fn:448d1164] Export snippets look like this:
=@@backendname:text...@@=. They will export only to that backend. You
can write several of them in a row for different backends:
=@@latex:\emph{italic}@@@@html:<i>italic</i>@@= and each export style
receives the right snippet.

             reply	other threads:[~2014-05-04  1:38 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 10+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2014-05-04  1:38 James Harkins [this message]
2014-05-05 17:04 ` Seeking advice on a worg contribution Eric S Fraga
2014-05-06  2:17   ` James Harkins
2014-05-06  6:45     ` Christian Moe
2014-05-06  7:30     ` Eric S Fraga
2014-05-06 10:08 ` Bastien
2014-05-06 11:46   ` James Harkins
2014-05-06 12:35     ` Bastien
2014-05-06 14:41   ` James Harkins
2014-05-07  9:08     ` Bastien

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