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#+title: Org Mode Compact Guide
#+subtitle:  Release {{{version}}}
#+author: The Org Mode Developers
#+language: en

#+texinfo: @insertcopying

* Copying
:PROPERTIES:
:copying:  t
:END:

Copyright \copy 2004--2021  Free Software Foundation, Inc.

#+begin_quote
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being "A GNU Manual,"
and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the license
is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License."
in the full Org manual, which is distributed together with this
compact guide.

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
modify this GNU manual."
#+end_quote

* Introduction
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Welcome!
:END:

Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.  It is
also an authoring and publishing system, and it supports working with
source code for literal programming and reproducible research.

This document is a much compressed derivative of the [[info:org][comprehensive Org
mode manual]].  It contains all basic features and commands, along with
important hints for customization.  It is intended for beginners who
would shy back from a 200 pages manual because of sheer size.

** Installation
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

#+attr_texinfo: :tag Important
#+begin_quote
If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
distribution, please skip this section and go directly to [[*Activation]].
#+end_quote

If you have downloaded Org from the web, either as a distribution
=.zip= or =.tar= file, or as a Git archive, it is best to run it
directly from the distribution directory.  You need to add the =lisp/=
subdirectories to the Emacs load path.  To do this, add the following
line to your Emacs init file:

: (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")

#+texinfo: @noindent
If you have been using git or a tar ball to get Org, you need to run
the following command to generate autoload information.

: make autoloads

** Activation
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

Add the following lines to your Emacs init file to define /global/
keys for three commands that are useful in any Emacs buffer, not just
Org buffers.  Please choose suitable keys yourself.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(global-set-key (kbd "C-c l") 'org-store-link)
(global-set-key (kbd "C-c a") 'org-agenda)
(global-set-key (kbd "C-c c") 'org-capture)
#+end_src

Files with extension =.org= will be put into Org mode automatically.

** Feedback
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or
ideas about it, please mail to the Org mailing list
mailto:emacs-orgmode@gnu.org.  For information on how to submit bug
reports, see the main manual.

* Document Structure
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: A tree works like your brain.
:END:

Org is an outliner.  Outlines allow a document to be organized in
a hierarchical structure, which, least for me, is the best
representation of notes and thoughts.  An overview of this structure
is achieved by folding, i.e., hiding large parts of the document to
show only the general document structure and the parts currently being
worked on.  Org greatly simplifies the use of outlines by compressing
the entire show and hide functionalities into a single command,
~org-cycle~, which is bound to the {{{kbd(TAB)}}} key.

** Headlines
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: How to typeset Org tree nodes.
:END:

Headlines define the structure of an outline tree.  The headlines in
Org start on the left margin[fn:1] with one or more stars followed by
a space.  For example:

#+begin_example
,* Top level headline
,** Second level
,*** Third level
    some text
,*** Third level
    more text
,* Another top level headline
#+end_example

Note that a headline named after ~org-footnote-section~, which
defaults to =Footnotes=, is considered as special.  A subtree with
this headline will be silently ignored by exporting functions.

Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an outline
that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline starters.
See [[*Miscellaneous]] for a setup to realize this.

** Visibility Cycling
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Show and hide, much simplified.
:END:

Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
Org uses just two commands, bound to {{{kbd(TAB)}}} and
{{{kbd{S-TAB)}}} to change the visibility in the buffer.

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(TAB)}}} ::

  /Subtree cycling/: Rotate current subtree among the states

 : ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
 : '-----------------------------------'

  When called with a prefix argument ({{{kbd(C-u TAB)}}}), or with the
  Shift key, global cycling is invoked.

- {{{kbd(S-TAB)}}}, {{{kbd(C-u TAB)}}} ::

  /Global cycling/: Rotate the entire buffer among the states

  : ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  : '--------------------------------------'

- {{{kbd(C-u C-u C-u TAB)}}} ::

  Show all, including drawers.

When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
OVERVIEW, i.e., only the top level headlines are visible.  This can be
configured through the variable ~org-startup-folded~, or on a per-file
basis by adding a =STARTUP= keyword to =overview=, =content=,
=showall=, =showeverything= or =show<n>levels= (n = 2..5) like this:

: #+STARTUP: content

** Motion
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Jumping to other headlines.
:END:

The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-n)}}} :: Next heading.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-p)}}} :: Previous heading.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-f)}}} :: Next heading same level.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-b)}}} :: Previous heading same level.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-u)}}} :: Backward to higher level heading.

** Structure Editing
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Changing sequence and level of headlines.
:END:

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(M-RET)}}} ::

  Insert new heading with same level as current.  If point is in
  a plain list item, a new item is created (see [[Plain Lists]]).  When
  this command is used in the middle of a line, the line is split and
  the rest of the line becomes the new headline[fn:2].

- {{{kbd(M-S-RET)}}} ::

  Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading.

- {{{kbd(TAB)}}} in new, empty entry ::

  In a new entry with no text yet, {{{kbd(TAB)}}} cycles through
  reasonable levels.

- {{{kbd(M-LEFT)}}}, {{{kbd(M-RIGHT)}}} ::

  Promote or demote current heading by one level.

- {{{kbd(M-UP)}}}, {{{kbd(M-DOWN)}}} ::

  Move subtree up or down, i.e., swap with previous or next subtree of
  same level.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-w)}}} ::

  Refile entry or region to a different location.  See [[*Refile and
  Copy]].

- {{{kbd(C-x n s)}}}, {{{kbd(C-x n w)}}} ::

  Narrow buffer to current subtree and widen it again.

When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
demotion work on all headlines in the region.

** Sparse Trees
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Matches embedded in context.
:END:

An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct /sparse
trees/ for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information
is made visible along with the headline structure above it[fn:3].
Just try it out and you will see immediately how it works.

Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:

- {{{kbd(C-c /)}}} ::

  This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating
  command.

- {{{kbd(C-c / r)}}} ::

  Occur.  Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all
  matches.  Each match is also highlighted; the highlights disappear
  by pressing {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}}.

  The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO
  keywords, tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this
  manual.

** Plain Lists
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Additional structure within an entry.
:END:

Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
additional structure.  They also provide a way to create lists of
checkboxes (see [[*Checkboxes]]).  Org supports editing such lists, and
every exporter (see [[*Exporting]]) can parse and format them.

Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.

#+attr_texinfo: :indic @bullet
- /Unordered/ list items start with =-=, =+=, or =*= as bullets.

- /Ordered/ list items start with =1.=, or =1)=.

- /Description/ list use =::= to separate the /term/ from the
  description.

Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the
first line.  An item ends before the next line that is indented like
its bullet/number, or less.  A list ends when all items are closed, or
before two blank lines.  An example:

#+begin_example
,* Lord of the Rings
  My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
     + this was already my favorite scene in the book
     + I really like Miranda Otto.
  Important actors in this film are:
  - Elijah Wood :: He plays Frodo
  - Sean Astin :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend.
#+end_example

The following commands act on items when point is in the first line of
an item (the line with the bullet or number).

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(TAB)}}} ::

  Items can be folded just like headline levels.

- {{{kbd(M-RET)}}} ::

  Insert new item at current level.  With a prefix argument, force
  a new heading (see [[*Structure Editing]]).

- {{{kbd(M-S-RET)}}} ::

  Insert a new item with a checkbox (see [[*Checkboxes]]).

- {{{kbd(M-S-UP)}}}, {{{kbd(M-S-DOWN)}}} ::

  Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next
  item of same indentation).  If the list is ordered, renumbering is
  automatic.

- {{{kbd(M-LEFT)}}}, {{{kbd(M-RIGHT)}}} ::

  Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children
  alone.

- {{{kbd(M-S-LEFT)}}}, {{{kbd(M-S-RIGHT)}}} ::

  Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}} ::

  If there is a checkbox (see [[*Checkboxes]]) in the item line, toggle
  the state of the checkbox.  Also verify bullets and indentation
  consistency in the whole list.

- {{{kbd(C-c -)}}} ::

  Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate
  bullets (=-=, =+=, =*=, =1.=, =1)=).

* Tables
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Pure magic for quick formatting.
:END:

Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor.  Spreadsheet-like
calculations are supported in connection with the Emacs Calc package
(see [[info:calc][GNU Emacs Calculator Manual]]).

Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII.  Any line with =|=
as the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table.
=|= is also the column separator.  A table might look like this:

#+begin_example
| Name  | Phone | Age |
|-------+-------+-----|
| Peter |  1234 |  17 |
| Anna  |  4321 |  25 |
#+end_example

A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press {{{kbd(TAB)}}}
or {{{kbd(RET)}}} or {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}} inside the table.
{{{kbd(TAB)}}} also moves to the next field ({{{kbd(RET)}}} to the
next row) and creates new table rows at the end of the table or before
horizontal lines.  The indentation of the table is set by the first
line.  Any line starting with =|-= is considered as a horizontal
separator line and will be expanded on the next re-align to span the
whole table width.  So, to create the above table, you would only type

: |Name|Phone|Age|
: |-

#+texinfo: @noindent
and then press {{{kbd(TAB)}}} to align the table and start filling in
fields.  Even faster would be to type =|Name|Phone|Age= followed by
{{{kbd(C-c RET)}}}.

When typing text into a field, Org treats {{{kbd(DEL)}}},
{{{kbd(Backspace)}}}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields.  Also, when
typing /immediately after point was moved into a new field with
{{{kbd(TAB)}}}, {{{kbd(S-TAB)}}} or {{{kbd(RET)}}}/, the field is
automatically made blank.

** Creation and conversion
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

- {{{kbd(C-c |)}}} ::

  Convert the active region to table.  If every line contains at least
  one {{{kbd(TAB)}}} character, the function assumes that the material
  is tab separated.  If every line contains a comma, comma-separated
  values (CSV) are assumed.  If not, lines are split at whitespace
  into fields.

  If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  table.  But it is easier just to start typing, like {{{kbd(|
  N a m e | P h o n e | A g e RET | - TAB)}}}.

** Re-aligning and field motion
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}} ::

  Re-align the table without moving point.

- {{{kbd(TAB)}}} ::

  Re-align the table, move to the next field.  Creates a new row if
  necessary.

- {{{kbd(S-TAB)}}} ::

  Re-align, move to previous field.

- {{{kbd(RET)}}} ::

  Re-align the table and move down to next row.  Creates a new row if
  necessary.

- {{{kbd(S-UP)}}}, {{{kbd(S-DOWN)}}}, {{{kbd(S-LEFT)}}}, {{{kbd(S-RIGHT)}}} ::

  Move a cell up, down, left, and right by swapping with adjacent
  cell.

** Column and row editing
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

- {{{kbd(M-LEFT)}}}, {{{kbd(M-RIGHT)}}} ::

  Move the current column left/right.

- {{{kbd(M-S-LEFT)}}} ::

  Kill the current column.

- {{{kbd(M-S-RIGHT)}}} ::

  Insert a new column to the left of point position.

- {{{kbd(M-UP)}}}, {{{kbd(M-DOWN)}}} ::

  Move the current row up/down.

- {{{kbd(M-S-UP)}}} ::

  Kill the current row or horizontal line.

- {{{kbd(M-S-DOWN)}}} ::

  Insert a new row above the current row.  With a prefix argument, the
  line is created below the current one.

- {{{kbd(C-c -)}}} ::

  Insert a horizontal line below current row.  With a prefix argument,
  the line is created above the current line.

- {{{kbd(C-c RET)}}} ::

  Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the point into
  the row below that line.

- {{{kbd(C-c ^)}}} ::

  Sort the table lines in the region.  The position of point indicates
  the column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the
  range between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire
  table.

* Hyperlinks
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Notes in context.
:END:

Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to other
files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.

Org recognizes plain URIs, possibly wrapped within angle brackets, and
activate them as clickable links.  The general link format, however,
looks like this:

: [[LINK][DESCRIPTION]]

#+texinfo: @noindent
or alternatively

: [[LINK]]

Once a link in the buffer is complete, with all brackets present, Org
changes the display so that =DESCRIPTION= is displayed instead of
=[[LINK][DESCRIPTION]]= and =LINK= is displayed instead of =[[LINK]]=.
To edit the invisible {{{var(LINK)}}} part, use {{{kbd(C-c C-l)}}}
with the point on the link.

** Internal links
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal
in the current file.  The most important case is a link like
=[[#my-custom-id]]= which links to the entry with the =CUSTOM_ID= property
=my-custom-id=.

Links such as =[[My Target]]= or =[[My Target][Find my target]]= lead
to a text search in the current file for the corresponding target,
which looks like =<<My Target>>=.

** External Links
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB
database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs.
External links are URL-like locators.  They start with a short
identifying string followed by a colon.  There can be no space after
the colon.  Here are some examples:

| =http://www.astro.uva.nl/=dominik=        | on the web                                  |
| =file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg=   | file, absolute path                         |
| =/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg=        | same as above                               |
| =file:papers/last.pdf=                    | file, relative path                         |
| =./papers/last.pdf=                       | same as above                               |
| =file:projects.org=                       | another Org file                            |
| =docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN=            | open in DocView mode at page {{{var(NNN)}}} |
| =id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9= | link to heading by ID                       |
| =news:comp.emacs=                         | Usenet link                                 |
| =mailto:adent@galaxy.net=                 | mail link                                   |
| =mhe:folder#id=                           | MH-E message link                           |
| =rmail:folder#id=                         | Rmail message link                          |
| =gnus:group#id=                           | Gnus article link                           |
| =bbdb:R.*Stallman=                        | BBDB link (with regexp)                     |
| =irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob=                 | IRC link                                    |
| =info:org#Hyperlinks=                     | Info node link                              |

File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to
a particular location in the file when following a link. This can be
a line number or a search option after a double colon. Here are a few
examples,, together with an explanation:

| =file:~/code/main.c::255=          | Find line 255               |
| =file:~/xx.org::My Target=         | Find =<<My Target>>=        |
| =[[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]= | Find entry with a custom ID |

** Handling Links
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to insert
it into an Org file, and to follow the link.

The main function is ~org-store-link~, called with {{{kbd(M-x
org-store-link)}}}.  Because of its importance, we suggest to bind it
to a widely available key (see [[*Activation]]).  It stores a link to the
current location.  The link is stored for later insertion into an Org
buffer---see below.

From an Org buffer, the following commands create, navigate or, more
generally, act on links.

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(C-c C-l)}}} ::

  Insert a link.  This prompts for a link to be inserted into the
  buffer.  You can just type a link, or use history keys {{{kbd(UP)}}}
  and {{{kbd(DOWN)}}} to access stored links.  You will be prompted
  for the description part of the link.

  When called with a {{{kbd(C-u)}}} prefix argument, file name
  completion is used to link to a file.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-l)}}} (with point on existing link) ::

  When point is on an existing link, {{{kbd(C-c C-l)}}} allows you to
  edit the link and description parts of the link.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-o)}}} ::

  Open link at point.

- {{{kbd(C-c &)}}} ::

  Jump back to a recorded position.  A position is recorded by the
  commands following internal links, and by {{{kbd(C-c %)}}}.  Using
  this command several times in direct succession moves through a ring
  of previously recorded positions.

* TODO Items
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Every tree branch can be a TODO item.
:END:

Org mode does not require TODO lists to live in separate documents.
Instead, TODO items are part of a notes file, because TODO items
usually come up while taking notes!  With Org mode, simply mark any
entry in a tree as being a TODO item.  In this way, information is not
duplicated, and TODO items remain in the context from which they
emerged.

Org mode provides methods to give you an overview of all the things
that you have to do, collected from many files.

** Basic TODO Functionality
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Marking and displaying TODO entries.
:ALT_TITLE: TODO Basics
:END:

Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word =TODO=,
for example:

: *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune

The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(C-c C-t)}}} ::

  Rotate the TODO state of the current item among

  : ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  : '--------------------------------'

  The same rotation can also be done "remotely" from the agenda buffer
  with the {{{kbd(t)}}} command key (see [[*Commands in the Agenda
  Buffer]]).

- {{{kbd(S-RIGHT)}}}, {{{kbd(S-LEFT)}}} ::

  Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling.

- {{{kbd(C-c / t)}}} ::

  View TODO items in a /sparse tree/ (see [[*Sparse Trees]]).  Folds the
  entire buffer, but shows all TODO items---with not-DONE state---and
  the headings hierarchy above them.

- {{{kbd(M-x org-agenda t)}}} ::

  Show the global TODO list.  Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE
  states) from all agenda files (see [[*Agenda Views]]) into a single
  buffer.  See [[*The Global TODO List]], for more information.

- {{{kbd(S-M-RET)}}} ::

  Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.

Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes.  See the docstring
of the option ~org-todo-state-tags-triggers~ for details.

** Multi-state Workflow
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: More than just on/off.
:END:

You can use TODO keywords to indicate @emph{sequential} working progress
states:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq org-todo-keywords
      '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
#+end_src

#+texinfo: @noindent
The vertical bar separates the =TODO= keywords (states that /need
action/) from the =DONE= states (which need /no further action/).  If
you do not provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the
=DONE= state.  With this setup, the command {{{kbd(C-c C-t)}}} cycles
an entry from =TODO= to =FEEDBACK=, then to =VERIFY=, and finally to
=DONE= and =DELEGATED=.

Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
parallel.  For example, you may want to have the basic =TODO=/=DONE=,
but also a workflow for bug fixing.  Your setup would then look like
this:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq org-todo-keywords
      '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
        (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")))
#+end_src

#+texinfo: @noindent
The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep
track of which subsequence should be used for a given entry.  The
example also shows how to define keys for fast access of a particular
state, by adding a letter in parenthesis after each keyword---you will
be prompted for the key after {{{kbd(C-c C-t)}}}.

To define TODO keywords that are valid only in a single file, use the
following text anywhere in the file.

#+begin_example
,#+TODO: TODO(t) | DONE(d)
,#+TODO: REPORT(r) BUG(b) KNOWNCAUSE(k) | FIXED(f)
,#+TODO: | CANCELED(c)
#+end_example

After changing one of these lines, use {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}} with the
cursor still in the line to make the changes known to Org mode.

** Progress Logging
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Dates and notes for progress.
:END:

To record a timestamp and a note when changing a TODO state, call the
command ~org-todo~ with a prefix argument.

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(C-u C-c C-t)}}} ::
  Prompt for a note and record a the time of the TODO state change.

Org mode can also automatically record a timestamp and optionally a
note when you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change
the state of a TODO item.  This system is highly configurable,
settings can be on a per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file
or even a subtree.  For information on how to clock working time for a
task, see [[*Clocking Work Time]].

*** Closing items
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

The most basic logging is to keep track of /when/ a certain TODO item
was marked as done.  This can be achieved with[fn:4]

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq org-log-done 'time)
#+end_src

#+texinfo: @noindent
Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
of the DONE states, a line =CLOSED: [timestamp]= is inserted just
after the headline.

If you want to record a note along with the timestamp, use[fn:5]

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq org-log-done 'note)
#+end_src

#+texinfo: @noindent
You are then be prompted for a note, and that note is stored below the
entry with a =Closing Note= heading.

*** Tracking TODO state changes
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

You might want to keep track of TODO state changes.  You can either
record just a timestamp, or a time-stamped note for a change.  These
records are inserted after the headline as an itemized list.  When
taking a lot of notes, you might want to get the notes out of the way
into a drawer.  Customize the variable ~org-log-into-drawer~ to get
this behavior.

For state logging, Org mode expects configuration on a per-keyword
basis.  This is achieved by adding special markers =!= (for
a timestamp) and =@= (for a note) in parentheses after each keyword.
For example:

: #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@)

#+texinfo: @noindent
defines TODO keywords and fast access keys, and also request that
a time is recorded when the entry is set to =DONE=, and that a note is
recorded when switching to =WAIT= or =CANCELED=.  The same syntax
works also when setting ~org-todo-keywords~.

** Priorities
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Some things are more important than others.
:END:

If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items
that it starts to make sense to prioritize them.  Prioritizing can be
done by placing a /priority cookie/ into the headline of a TODO item,
like this

: *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune

Org mode supports three priorities: =A=, =B=, and =C=.  =A= is the
highest, =B= the default if none is given.  Priorities make
a difference only in the agenda.

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ;
- {{{kbd(C-c \,)}}} ::

  Set the priority of the current headline.  Press {{{kbd(A)}}},
  {{{kbd(B)}}} or {{{kbd(C)}}} to select a priority, or {{{kbd(SPC)}}}
  to remove the cookie.

- {{{kbd(S-UP)}}} (~org-priority-up~); {{{kbd(S-DOWN)}}} (~org-priority-down~) ::

  Increase/decrease the priority of the current headline.

** Breaking Tasks Down into Subtasks
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Splitting a task into manageable pieces.
:ALT_TITLE: Breaking Down Tasks
:END:

It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller,
manageable subtasks.  You can do this by creating an outline tree
below a TODO item, with detailed subtasks on the tree.  To keep an
overview of the fraction of subtasks that have already been marked
as done, insert either =[/]= or =[%]= anywhere in the headline.  These
cookies are updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or
when pressing {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}} on the cookie.  For example:

#+begin_example
,* Organize Party [33%]
,** TODO Call people [1/2]
,*** TODO Peter
,*** DONE Sarah
,** TODO Buy food
,** DONE Talk to neighbor
#+end_example

** Checkboxes
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Tick-off lists.
:END:

Every item in a plain list (see [[*Plain Lists]]) can be made into
a checkbox by starting it with the string =[ ]=.  Checkboxes are not
included into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split
a task into a number of simple steps.

Here is an example of a checkbox list.

#+begin_example
,* TODO Organize party [2/4]
  - [-] call people [1/2]
    - [ ] Peter
    - [X] Sarah
  - [X] order food
#+end_example

Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children
that are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes makes the
parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
checked.

The following commands work with checkboxes:

- {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}} ::

  Toggle checkbox status or---with prefix argument---checkbox presence
  at point.

- {{{kbd(M-S-RET)}}} ::

  Insert a new item with a checkbox.  This works only if point is
  already in a plain list item (see [[*Plain Lists]]).

* Tags
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags.
:END:

An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for
cross-correlating information is to assign /tags/ to headlines.  Org
mode has extensive support for tags.

Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of
the headline.  Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, =_=,
and =@=.  Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
=:work:=.  Several tags can be specified, as in =:work:urgent:=.  Tags
by default are in bold face with the same color as the headline.

** Tag inheritance
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

Tags make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees.  If
a heading has a certain tag, all subheadings inherit the tag as well.
For example, in the list

#+begin_example
,* Meeting with the French group      :work:
,** Summary by Frank                  :boss:notes:
,*** TODO Prepare slides for him      :action:
#+end_example

#+texinfo: @noindent
the final heading has the tags =work=, =boss=, =notes=, and =action=
even though the final heading is not explicitly marked with those
tags.

You can also set tags that all entries in a file should inherit just
as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical level zero that
surrounds the entire file.  Use a line like this[fn:6]:

: #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:

** Setting tags
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
After a colon, {{{kbd(M-TAB)}}} offers completion on tags.  There is
also a special command for inserting tags:

- {{{kbd(C-c C-q)}}} ::

  Enter new tags for the current headline.  Org mode either offers
  completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  below.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}} ::

  When point is in a headline, this does the same as {{{kbd(C-c
  C-q)}}}.

Org supports tag insertion based on a /list of tags/.  By default this
list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags currently used in
the buffer.  You may also globally specify a hard list of tags with
the variable ~org-tag-alist~.  Finally you can set the default tags
for a given file using the =TAGS= keyword, like

: #+TAGS: @work @home @tennisclub
: #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat

By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities
for entering tags.  However, it also implements another, quicker, tag
selection method called /fast tag selection/.  This allows you to
select and deselect tags with just a single key press.  For this to
work well you should assign unique letters to most of your commonly
used tags.  You can do this globally by configuring the variable
~org-tag-alist~ in your Emacs init file.  For example, you may find
the need to tag many items in different files with =@home=.  In this
case you can set something like:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq org-tag-alist '(("@work" . ?w) ("@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
#+end_src

If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
can instead set the =TAGS= keyword as:

: #+TAGS: @work(w)  @home(h)  @tennisclub(t)  laptop(l)  pc(p)

** Tag groups
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

A tag can be defined as a /group tag/ for a set of other tags.  The
group tag can be seen as the "broader term" for its set of tags.

You can set group tags by using brackets and inserting a colon between
the group tag and its related tags:

: #+TAGS: [ GTD : Control Persp ]

#+texinfo: @noindent
or, if tags in the group should be mutually exclusive:

: #+TAGS: { Context : @Home @Work }

When you search for a group tag, it return matches for all members in
the group and its subgroups.  In an agenda view, filtering by a group
tag displays or hide headlines tagged with at least one of the members
of the group or any of its subgroups.

If you want to ignore group tags temporarily, toggle group tags
support with ~org-toggle-tags-groups~, bound to {{{kbd(C-c C-x q)}}}.

** Tag searches
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

- {{{kbd(C-c / m)}}} or {{{kbd(C-c \)}}} ::

  Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search.
  With a {{{kbd(C-u)}}} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not
  a TODO line.

- {{{kbd(M-x org-agenda m)}}} ::

  Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.  See
  [[*Matching Tags and Properties]].

- {{{kbd(M-x org-agenda M)}}} ::

  Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  only TODO items and force checking subitems (see the option
  ~org-tags-match-list-sublevels~).

These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic
Boolean logic like =+boss+urgent-project1=, to find entries with tags
=boss= and =urgent=, but not =project1=, or =Kathy|Sally= to find
entries which are tagged, like =Kathy= or =Sally=.  The full syntax of
the search string is rich and allows also matching against TODO
keywords, entry levels and properties.  For a more detailed description
with many examples, see [[*Matching Tags and Properties]].

* Properties
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Storing information about an entry.
:END:

Properties are key-value pairs associated with an entry.  They live in
a special drawer with the name =PROPERTIES=.  Each property is
specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons) first,
and the value after it:

#+begin_example
,* CD collection
,** Classic
,*** Goldberg Variations
    :PROPERTIES:
    :Title:     Goldberg Variations
    :Composer:  J.S. Bach
    :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
    :NDisks:    1
    :END:
#+end_example

You may define the allowed values for a particular property =Xyz= by
setting a property =Xyz_ALL=.  This special property is /inherited/,
so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it applies to the entire tree.
When allowed values are defined, setting the corresponding property
becomes easier and is less prone to typing errors.  For the example
with the CD collection, we can pre-define publishers and the number of
disks in a box like this:

#+begin_example
,* CD collection
  :PROPERTIES:
  :NDisks_ALL:  1 2 3 4
  :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  :END:
#+end_example

If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in
a file, use a line like:

: #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4

The following commands help to work with properties:

- {{{kbd(C-c C-x p)}}} ::

  Set a property.  This prompts for a property name and a value.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-c d)}}} ::

  Remove a property from the current entry.

To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on
properties, the same commands are used as for tag searches (see
[[*Tags]]). The syntax for the search string is described in [[*Matching
Tags and Properties]].

* Dates and Times
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Making items useful for planning.
:END:

To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date
and/or a time.  The specially formatted string carrying the date and
time information is called a /timestamp/ in Org mode.

** Timestamps
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Assigning a time to a tree entry.
:END:

A timestamp is a specification of a date---possibly with a time or
a range of times---in a special format, either =<2003-09-16 Tue>= or
=<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>= or =<2003-09-16 Tue 12:00-12:30>=.
A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree
entry.  Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in
the agenda (see [[*The Weekly/daily Agenda]]).  We distinguish:

- Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment ::

  A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item.  This is
  just like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda.

  #+begin_example
  ,* Meet Peter at the movies
    <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  ,* Discussion on climate change
    <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  #+end_example

- Timestamp with repeater interval ::

  A timestamp may contain a /repeater interval/, indicating that it
  applies not only on the given date, but again and again after
  a certain interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years
  (y).  The following shows up in the agenda every Wednesday:

  #+begin_example
  ,* Pick up Sam at school
    <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  #+end_example

- Diary-style expression entries ::

  #+cindex: diary style timestamps
  #+cindex: sexp timestamps
  For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the
  special expression diary entries implemented in the Emacs Calendar
  package.  For example, with optional time:

  #+begin_example
  ,* 22:00-23:00 The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
    <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  #+end_example

- Time/Date range ::

  Two timestamps connected by =--= denote a range.

  #+begin_example
  ,** Meeting in Amsterdam
     <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  #+end_example

- Inactive timestamp ::

  Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  angular ones.  These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they
  do /not/ trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.

  #+begin_example
  ,* Gillian comes late for the fifth time
    [2006-11-01 Wed]
  #+end_example

** Creating Timestamps
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Commands that insert timestamps.
:END:

For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
format.  All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
format.

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(C-c .)}}} ::

  Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp.  When point
  is at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to
  modify this timestamp instead of inserting a new one.  When this
  command is used twice in succession, a time range is inserted.  With
  a prefix argument, it also adds the current time.

- {{{kbd(C-c !)}}} ::

  Like {{{kbd(C-c .)}}}, but insert an inactive timestamp that does
  not cause an agenda entry.

- {{{kbd(S-LEFT)}}}, {{{kbd(S-RIGHT)}}} ::

  Change date at point by one day.

- {{{kbd(S-UP)}}}, {{{kbd(S-DOWN)}}} ::

  On the beginning or enclosing bracket of a timestamp, change its
  type.  Within a timestamp, change the item under point.  Point can
  be on a year, month, day, hour or minute.  When the timestamp
  contains a time range like =15:30-16:30=, modifying the first time
  also shifts the second, shifting the time block with constant
  length.  To change the length, modify the second time.


When Org mode prompts for a date/time, it accepts any string
containing some date and/or time information, and intelligently
interprets the string, deriving defaults for unspecified information
from the current date and time.  You can also select a date in the
pop-up calendar.  See the manual for more information on how exactly
the date/time prompt works.

** Deadlines and Scheduling
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Planning your work.
:END:

A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate
planning:

- {{{kbd(C-c C-d)}}} ::

  Insert =DEADLINE= keyword along with a time stamp, in the line
  following the headline.

  Meaning: the task---most likely a TODO item, though not
  necessarily---is supposed to be finished on that date.

  On the deadline date, the task is listed in the agenda.  In
  addition, the agenda for /today/ carries a warning about the
  approaching or missed deadline, starting ~org-deadline-warning-days~
  before the due date, and continuing until the entry is marked as
  done.  An example:

  #+begin_example
  ,*** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
      DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
      The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  #+end_example

- {{{kbd(C-c C-s)}}} ::

  Insert =SCHEDULED= keyword along with a stamp, in the line following
  the headline.

  Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  date[fn:7].

  The headline is listed under the given date[fn:8].  In addition,
  a reminder that the scheduled date has passed is present in the
  compilation for /today/, until the entry is marked as done, i.e.,
  the task is automatically forwarded until completed.

  #+begin_example
  ,*** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
      SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  #+end_example

Some tasks need to be repeated again and again.  Org mode helps to
organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a =DEADLINE=,
=SCHEDULED=, or plain timestamps.  In the following example:

#+begin_example
,** TODO Pay the rent
   DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
#+end_example

#+texinfo: @noindent
the =+1m= is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
has a deadline on =<2005-10-01>= and repeats itself every (one) month
starting from that time.

** Clocking Work Time
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Tracking how long you spent on a task.
:END:

Org mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in
a project.

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(C-c C-x C-i)}}} ::

  Start the clock on the current item (clock-in).  This inserts the
  =CLOCK= keyword together with a timestamp.  When called with
  a {{{kbd(C-u)}}} prefix argument, select the task from a list of
  recently clocked tasks.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-x C-o)}}} ::

  Stop the clock (clock-out).  This inserts another timestamp at the
  same location where the clock was last started.  It also directly
  computes the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as
  ==>HH:MM=.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-x C-e)}}} ::

  Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-x C-q)}}} ::

  Cancel the current clock.  This is useful if a clock was started by
  mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-x C-j)}}} ::

  Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task.  With
  a {{{kbd(C-u)}}} prefix argument, select the target task from a list
  of recently clocked tasks.

The {{{kbd(l)}}} key may be used in the agenda (see [[*The Weekly/daily
Agenda]]) to show which tasks have been worked on or closed during
a day.

* Capture, Refile, Archive
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: The ins and outs for projects.
:END:

An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with
them.  Org does this using a process called /capture/.  It also can
store files related to a task (/attachments/) in a special directory.
Once in the system, tasks and projects need to be moved around.
Moving completed project trees to an archive file keeps the system
compact and fast.

** Capture
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Capturing new stuff.
:END:

Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your
work flow.  You can define templates for new entries and associate
them with different targets for storing notes.

*** Setting up capture
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

The following customization sets a default target[fn:9] file for notes.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
#+end_src

You may also define a global key for capturing new material (see
[[*Activation]]).

*** Using capture
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

- {{{kbd(M-x org-capture)}}} ::

  Start a capture process, placing you into a narrowed indirect buffer
  to edit.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}} ::

  Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer,
  {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}} returns you to the window configuration before
  the capture process, so that you can resume your work without
  further distraction.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-w)}}} ::

  Finalize the capture process by refiling the note to a different
  place (see [[*Refile and Copy]]).

- {{{kbd(C-c C-k)}}} ::

  Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.

*** Capture templates
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

You can use templates for different types of capture items, and for
different target locations.  Say you would like to use one template to
create general TODO entries, and you want to put these entries under
the heading =Tasks= in your file =~/org/gtd.org=.  Also, a date tree
in the file =journal.org= should capture journal entries.  A possible
configuration would look like:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq org-capture-templates
      '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
         "* TODO %?\n  %i\n  %a")
        ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
         "* %?\nEntered on %U\n  %i\n  %a")))
#+end_src

If you then press {{{kbd(t)}}} from the capture menu, Org will prepare
the template for you like this:

: * TODO
:   [[file:LINK TO WHERE YOU INITIATED CAPTURE]]

#+texinfo: @noindent
During expansion of the template, special %-escapes[fn:10] allow
dynamic insertion of content.  Here is a small selection of the
possibilities, consult the manual for more.

| =%a=       | annotation, normally the link created with ~org-store-link~            |
| =%i=       | initial content, the region when capture is called with {{{kbd(C-u)}}} |
| =%t=, =%T= | timestamp, date only, or date and time                                 |
| =%u=, =%U= | like above, but inactive timestamps                                    |
| =%?=       | after completing the template, position point here                                                                       |

** Refile and Copy
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another.
:END:

When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile or to copy
some of the entries into a different list, for example into a project.
Cutting, finding the right location, and then pasting the note is
cumbersome.  To simplify this process, you can use the following
special command:

- {{{kbd(C-c C-w)}}} ::

  Refile the entry or region at point.  This command offers possible
  locations for refiling the entry and lets you select one with
  completion.  The item (or all items in the region) is filed below
  the target heading as a subitem.

  By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are
  considered to be targets, but you can have more complex definitions
  across a number of files.  See the variable ~org-refile-targets~ for
  details.

- {{{kbd(C-u C-c C-w)}}} ::

  Use the refile interface to jump to a heading.

- {{{kbd(C-u C-u C-c C-w)}}} ::

  Jump to the location where ~org-refile~ last moved a tree to.

- {{{kbd(C-c M-w)}}} ::

  Copying works like refiling, except that the original note is not
  deleted.

** Archiving
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: What to do with finished products.
:END:

When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want to
move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
agenda.  Archiving is important to keep your working files compact and
global searches like the construction of agenda views fast.

The most common archiving action is to move a project tree to another
file, the archive file.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-x C-a)}}} ::

  Archive the current entry using the command specified in the
  variable ~org-archive-default-command~.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-x C-s)}}} or short {{{kbd(C-c $)}}} ::

  Archive the subtree starting at point position to the location given
  by ~org-archive-location~.

The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
current file, with the name derived by appending =_archive= to the
current file name.  You can also choose what heading to file archived
items under, with the possibility to add them to a datetree in a file.
For information and examples on how to specify the file and the
heading, see the documentation string of the variable
~org-archive-location~.

There is also an in-buffer option for setting this variable, for
example:

: #+ARCHIVE: %s_done::

* Agenda Views
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Collecting information into views.
:END:

Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and tagged
headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of
files.  To get an overview of open action items, or of events that are
important for a particular date, this information must be collected,
sorted and displayed in an organized way.

The extracted information is displayed in a special /agenda buffer/.
This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the
corresponding locations in the original Org files, and even to edit
these files remotely.  Remote editing from the agenda buffer means,
for example, that you can change the dates of deadlines and
appointments from the agenda buffer.  For commands available in the
Agenda buffer, see [[*Commands in the Agenda Buffer]].

** Agenda Files
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Files being searched for agenda information.
:END:

The information to be shown is normally collected from all /agenda
files/, the files listed in the variable ~org-agenda-files~.

#+attr_texinfo: :sep or
- {{{kbd(C-c [)}}} ::

  Add current file to the list of agenda files.  The file is added to
  the front of the list.  If it was already in the list, it is moved
  to the front.  With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the
  end.

- {{{kbd(C-c ])}}} ::

  Remove current file from the list of agenda files.

- {{{kbd(C-')}}} or {{{kbd(C-\,)}}} ::

  Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.

** The Agenda Dispatcher
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Keyboard access to agenda views.
:ALT_TITLE: Agenda Dispatcher
:END:

The views are created through a dispatcher, accessible with {{{kbd(M-x
org-agenda)}}}, or, better, bound to a global key (see [[*Activation]]).
It displays a menu from which an additional letter is required to
execute a command.  The dispatcher offers the following default
commands:

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(a)}}} ::

  Create the calendar-like agenda (see [[*The Weekly/daily Agenda]]).

- {{{kbd(t)}}}, {{{kbd(T)}}} ::

  Create a list of all TODO items (see [[*The Global TODO List]]).

- {{{kbd(m)}}}, {{{kbd(M)}}} ::

  Create a list of headlines matching a given expression (see
  [[*Matching Tags and Properties]]).

- {{{kbd(s)}}} ::

  #+kindex: s @r{(Agenda dispatcher)}
  Create a list of entries selected by a boolean expression of
  keywords and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in
  the entry.

** The Weekly/Daily Agenda
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: What is available out of the box?
:ALT_TITLE: Built-in Agenda Views
:END:

The purpose of the weekly/daily /agenda/ is to act like a page of
a paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day.

- {{{kbd(M-x org-agenda a)}}} ::

  Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of Org files.
  The agenda shows the entries for each day.

Org mode understands the syntax of the diary and allows you to use
diary expression entries directly in Org files:

#+begin_example
,* Holidays
  :PROPERTIES:
  :CATEGORY: Holiday
  :END:
%%(org-calendar-holiday)   ; special function for holiday names

,* Birthdays
  :PROPERTIES:
  :CATEGORY: Ann
  :END:
%%(org-anniversary 1956  5 14) Arthur Dent is %d years old
%%(org-anniversary 1869 10  2) Mahatma Gandhi would be %d years old
#+end_example

Org can interact with Emacs appointments notification facility.  To
add the appointments of your agenda files, use the command
~org-agenda-to-appt~.

** The Global TODO List
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: All unfinished action items.
:ALT_TITLE: Global TODO List
:END:

The global TODO list contains all unfinished TODO items formatted and
collected into a single place.  Remote editing of TODO items lets you
can change the state of a TODO entry with a single key press.  For
commands available in the TODO list, see [[*Commands in the Agenda
Buffer]].

- {{{kbd(M-x org-agenda t)}}} ::

  Show the global TODO list.  This collects the TODO items from all
  agenda files (see [[*Agenda Views]]) into a single buffer.

- {{{kbd(M-x org-agenda T)}}} ::

  Like the above, but allows selection of a specific TODO keyword.

** Matching Tags and Properties
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Structured information with fine-tuned search.
:END:

If headlines in the agenda files are marked with /tags/ (see [[*Tags]]),
or have properties (see [[*Properties]]), you can select headlines based
on this metadata and collect them into an agenda buffer.  The match
syntax described here also applies when creating sparse trees with
{{{kbd(C-c / m)}}}.

- {{{kbd(M-x org-agenda m)}}} ::

  Produce a list of all headlines that match a given set of tags.  The
  command prompts for a selection criterion, which is a boolean logic
  expression with tags, like =+work+urgent-withboss= or =work|home=
  (see [[*Tags]]).  If you often need a specific search, define a custom
  command for it (see [[*The Agenda Dispatcher]]).

- {{{kbd(M-x org-agenda M)}}} ::

  Like {{{kbd(m)}}}, but only select headlines that are also TODO
  items.

A search string can use Boolean operators =&= for AND and =|= for OR.
=&= binds more strongly than =|=.  Parentheses are currently not
implemented.  Each element in the search is either a tag, a regular
expression matching tags, or an expression like =PROPERTY OPERATOR
VALUE= with a comparison operator, accessing a property value.  Each
element may be preceded by =-= to select against it, and =+= is
syntactic sugar for positive selection.  The AND operator =&= is
optional when =+= or =-= is present.  Here are some examples, using
only tags.

- =+work-boss= ::

  Select headlines tagged =work=, but discard those also tagged
  =boss=.

- =work|laptop= ::

  Selects lines tagged =work= or =laptop=.

- =work|laptop+night= ::

  Like before, but require the =laptop= lines to be tagged also
  =night=.

You may also test for properties at the same time as matching tags,
see the manual for more information.

** Search View
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Find entries by searching for text.
:END:

This agenda view is a general text search facility for Org mode
entries.  It is particularly useful to find notes.

- {{{kbd(M-x org-agenda s)}}} (~org-search-view~) ::

  #+kindex: s @r{(Agenda dispatcher)}
  #+findex: org-search-view
  This is a special search that lets you select entries by matching
  a substring or specific words using a boolean logic.

For example, the search string =computer equipment= matches entries
that contain =computer equipment= as a substring.

Search view can also search for specific keywords in the entry, using
Boolean logic.  The search string =+computer
+wifi -ethernet -{8\.11[bg]}= matches note entries that contain the
keywords =computer= and =wifi=, but not the keyword =ethernet=, and
which are also not matched by the regular expression =8\.11[bg]=,
meaning to exclude both =8.11b= and =8.11g=.

Note that in addition to the agenda files, this command also searches
the files listed in ~org-agenda-text-search-extra-files~.

** Commands in the Agenda Buffer
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Remote editing of Org trees.
:ALT_TITLE: Agenda Commands
:END:

Entries in the agenda buffer are linked back to the Org file or diary
file where they originate.  You are not allowed to edit the agenda
buffer itself, but commands are provided to show and jump to the
original entry location, and to edit the Org files "remotely" from the
agenda buffer.  This is just a selection of the many commands, explore
the agenda menu and the manual for a complete list.

*** Motion
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

- {{{kbd(n)}}} ::

  Next line (same as {{{kbd(DOWN)}}} and {{{kbd(C-n)}}}).

- {{{kbd(p)}}} ::

  Previous line (same as {{{kbd(UP)}}} and {{{kbd(C-p)}}}).

*** View/Go to Org file
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

- {{{kbd(SPC)}}} ::

  Display the original location of the item in another window.
  With a prefix argument, make sure that drawers stay folded.

- {{{kbd(TAB)}}} ::

  Go to the original location of the item in another window.

- {{{kbd(RET)}}} ::

  Go to the original location of the item and delete other windows.

*** Change display
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:
#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(o)}}} ::

  Delete other windows.

- {{{kbd(v d)}}} or short {{{kbd(d)}}} ::

  Switch to day view.

- {{{kbd(v w)}}} or short {{{kbd(w)}}} ::

  Switch to week view.

- {{{kbd(f)}}} ::

  Go forward in time to display the span following the current one.
  For example, if the display covers a week, switch to the following
  week.

- {{{kbd(b)}}} ::

  Go backward in time to display earlier dates.

- {{{kbd(.)}}} ::

  Go to today.

- {{{kbd(j)}}} ::

  Prompt for a date and go there.

- {{{kbd(v l)}}} or {{{kbd(v L)}}} or short {{{kbd(l)}}} ::

  Toggle Logbook mode.  In Logbook mode, entries that were marked as
  done while logging was on (see the variable ~org-log-done~) are
  shown in the agenda, as are entries that have been clocked on that
  day.  When called with a {{{kbd(C-u)}}} prefix argument, show all
  possible logbook entries, including state changes.

- {{{kbd(r)}}}, {{{kbd(g)}}} ::

  Recreate the agenda buffer, for example to reflect the changes after
  modification of the timestamps of items.

- {{{kbd(s)}}} ::

  #+kindex: C-x C-s
  #+findex: org-save-all-org-buffers
  #+kindex: s
  Save all Org buffers in the current Emacs session, and also the
  locations of IDs.

*** Remote editing
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

- {{{kbd(0--9)}}} ::

  Digit argument.

- {{{kbd(t)}}} ::

  Change the TODO state of the item, both in the agenda and in the
  original Org file.

- {{{kbd(C-k)}}} ::

  Delete the current agenda item along with the entire subtree
  belonging to it in the original Org file.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-w)}}} ::

  Refile the entry at point.

- {{{kbd(a)}}} ::

  Archive the subtree corresponding to the entry at point using the
  default archiving command set in ~org-archive-default-command~.

- {{{kbd($)}}} ::

  Archive the subtree corresponding to the current headline.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-s)}}} ::

  Schedule this item.  With a prefix argument, remove the
  scheduling timestamp

- {{{kbd(C-c C-d)}}} ::

  Set a deadline for this item.  With a prefix argument, remove the
  deadline.

- {{{kbd(S-RIGHT)}}} ::

  Change the timestamp associated with the current line by one day
  into the future.

- {{{kbd(S-LEFT)}}} ::

  Change the timestamp associated with the current line by one day
  into the past.

- {{{kbd(I)}}} ::

  Start the clock on the current item.

- {{{kbd(O)}}} ::

  Stop the previously started clock.

- {{{kbd(X)}}} ::

  Cancel the currently running clock.

- {{{kbd(J)}}} ::

  Jump to the running clock in another window.

*** Quit and exit
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

- {{{kbd(q)}}} ::

  Quit agenda, remove the agenda buffer.

- {{{kbd(x)}}} ::

  Exit agenda, remove the agenda buffer and all buffers loaded by
  Emacs for the compilation of the agenda.

** Custom Agenda Views
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Defining special searches and views.
:END:

The first application of custom searches is the definition of keyboard
shortcuts for frequently used searches, either creating an agenda
buffer, or a sparse tree (the latter covering of course only the
current buffer).

Custom commands are configured in the variable
~org-agenda-custom-commands~.  You can customize this variable, for
example by pressing {{{kbd(C)}}} from the agenda dispatcher (see [[*The
Agenda Dispatcher]]).  You can also directly set it with Emacs Lisp in
the Emacs init file.  The following example contains all valid agenda
views:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
      '(("w" todo "WAITING")
        ("u" tags "+boss-urgent")
        ("v" tags-todo "+boss-urgent")))
#+end_src

The initial string in each entry defines the keys you have to press
after the dispatcher command in order to access the command.  Usually
this is just a single character.  The second parameter is the search
type, followed by the string or regular expression to be used for the
matching.  The example above will therefore define:

- {{{kbd(w)}}} ::

  as a global search for TODO entries with =WAITING= as the TODO
  keyword.

- {{{kbd(u)}}} ::

  as a global tags search for headlines tagged =boss= but not
  =urgent=.

- {{{kbd(v)}}} ::

  The same search, but limiting it to headlines that are also TODO
  items.

* Markup for Rich Contents
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Compose beautiful documents.
:ALT_TITLE: Markup
:END:

Org is primarily about organizing and searching through your
plain-text notes.  However, it also provides a lightweight yet robust
markup language for rich text formatting and more.  Used in
conjunction with the export framework (see [[*Exporting]]), you can author
beautiful documents in Org.

** Paragraphs
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: The basic unit of text.
:END:

Paragraphs are separated by at least one empty line.  If you need to
enforce a line break within a paragraph, use =\\= at the end of
a line.

To preserve the line breaks, indentation and blank lines in a region,
but otherwise use normal formatting, you can use this construct, which
can also be used to format poetry.

#+begin_example
,#+BEGIN_VERSE
 Great clouds overhead
 Tiny black birds rise and fall
 Snow covers Emacs

    ---AlexSchroeder
,#+END_VERSE
#+end_example

When quoting a passage from another document, it is customary to
format this as a paragraph that is indented on both the left and the
right margin.  You can include quotations in Org documents like this:

#+begin_example
,#+BEGIN_QUOTE
Everything should be made as simple as possible,
but not any simpler ---Albert Einstein
,#+END_QUOTE
#+end_example

If you would like to center some text, do it like this:

#+begin_example
,#+BEGIN_CENTER
Everything should be made as simple as possible, \\
but not any simpler
,#+END_CENTER
#+end_example

** Emphasis and Monospace
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Bold, italic, etc.
:END:

You can make words =*bold*=, =/italic/=, =_underlined_=, ==verbatim==
and =~code~=, and, if you must, =+strike-through+=.  Text in the code
and verbatim string is not processed for Org specific syntax; it is
exported verbatim.

** Embedded LaTeX
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents.
:END:

For scientific notes which need to be able to contain mathematical
symbols and the occasional formula, Org mode supports embedding LaTeX
code into its files.  You can directly use TeX-like syntax for special
symbols, enter formulas and entire LaTeX environments.

#+begin_example
The radius of the sun is R_sun = 6.96 x 10^8 m.  On the other hand,
the radius of Alpha Centauri is R_{Alpha Centauri} = 1.28 x R_{sun}.

\begin{equation}                        % arbitrary environments,
x=\sqrt{b}                              % even tables, figures
\end{equation}                          % etc

If $a^2=b$ and \( b=2 \), then the solution must be
either $$ a=+\sqrt{2} $$ or \[ a=-\sqrt{2} \].
#+end_example

** Literal examples
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Source code examples with special formatting.
:END:

You can include literal examples that should not be subjected to
markup.  Such examples are typeset in monospace, so this is well
suited for source code and similar examples.

#+begin_example
,#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE
  Some example from a text file.
,#+END_EXAMPLE
#+end_example

For simplicity when using small examples, you can also start the
example lines with a colon followed by a space.  There may also be
additional whitespace before the colon:

#+begin_example
Here is an example
   : Some example from a text file.
#+end_example

If the example is source code from a programming language, or any
other text that can be marked up by Font Lock in Emacs, you can ask
for the example to look like the fontified Emacs buffer.

#+begin_example
,#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
  (defun org-xor (a b)
    "Exclusive or."
    (if a (not b) b))
 ,#+END_SRC
#+end_example

To edit the example in a special buffer supporting this language, use
{{{kbd(C-c ')}}} to both enter and leave the editing buffer.

** Images
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Display an image.
:END:

An image is a link to an image file that does not have a description
part, for example

: ./img/cat.jpg

If you wish to define a caption for the image and maybe a label for
internal cross references (see [[*Hyperlinks]]), make sure that the
link is on a line by itself and precede it with =CAPTION= and =NAME=
keywords as follows:

#+begin_example
,#+CAPTION: This is the caption for the next figure link (or table)
,#+NAME:   fig:SED-HR4049
[[./img/a.jpg]]
#+end_example

** Creating Footnotes
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Edit and read footnotes.
:END:

A footnote is defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote
marker in square brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed.  The
footnote reference is simply the marker in square brackets, inside
text.  For example:

#+begin_example
The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
...
[fn:1] The link is: https://orgmode.org
#+end_example

The following commands handle footnotes:

- {{{kbd(C-c C-x f)}}} ::

  The footnote action command.  When point is on a footnote reference,
  jump to the definition.  When it is at a definition, jump to the
  (first) reference.  Otherwise, create a new footnote.  When this
  command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  options including renumbering is offered.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}} ::

  Jump between definition and reference.

* Exporting
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Sharing and publishing notes.
:END:

Org can convert and export documents to a variety of other formats
while retaining as much structure (see [[*Document Structure]]) and markup
(see [[*Markup for Rich Contents]]) as possible.

** The Export Dispatcher
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: The main interface.
:END:

The export dispatcher is the main interface for Org's exports.
A hierarchical menu presents the currently configured export formats.
Options are shown as easy toggle switches on the same screen.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-e)}}} ::

  Invokes the export dispatcher interface.

Org exports the entire buffer by default.  If the Org buffer has an
active region, then Org exports just that region.

** Export Settings
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Common export settings.
:END:

The exporter recognizes special lines in the buffer which provide
additional information.  These lines may be put anywhere in the file:

: #+TITLE: I'm in the Mood for Org

Most proeminent export options include:

| =TITLE=    | the title to be shown                            |
| =AUTHOR=   | the author (default taken from ~user-full-name~) |
| =DATE=     | a date, fixed, or an Org timestamp               |
| =EMAIL=    | email address (default from ~user-mail-address~) |
| =LANGUAGE= | language code, e.g., =en=                        |

Option keyword sets can be inserted from the export dispatcher (see
[[*The Export Dispatcher]]) using the =Insert template= command by
pressing {{{kbd(#)}}}.

** Table of Contents
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: The if and where of the table of contents.
:END:

The table of contents includes all headlines in the document.  Its
depth is therefore the same as the headline levels in the file.  If
you need to use a different depth, or turn it off entirely, set the
~org-export-with-toc~ variable accordingly.  You can achieve the same
on a per file basis, using the following =toc= item in =OPTIONS=
keyword:

#+begin_example
,#+OPTIONS: toc:2          (only include two levels in TOC)
,#+OPTIONS: toc:nil        (no default TOC at all)
#+end_example

Org normally inserts the table of contents directly before the first
headline of the file.

** Include Files
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Include additional files into a document.
:END:

During export, you can include the content of another file.  For
example, to include your =.emacs= file, you could use:

: #+INCLUDE: "~/.emacs" src emacs-lisp

#+texinfo: @noindent
The first parameter is the file name to include.  The optional second
parameter specifies the block type: =example=, =export= or =src=.  The
optional third parameter specifies the source code language to use for
formatting the contents.  This is relevant to both =export= and =src=
block types.

You can visit the included file with {{{kbd(C-c ')}}}.

** Comment Lines
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: What will not be exported.
:END:

Lines starting with zero or more whitespace characters followed by one
=#= and a whitespace are treated as comments and, as such, are not
exported.

Likewise, regions surrounded by =#+BEGIN_COMMENT= ... =#+END_COMMENT=
are not exported.

Finally, a =COMMENT= keyword at the beginning of an entry, but after
any other keyword or priority cookie, comments out the entire subtree.
The command below helps changing the comment status of a headline.

- {{{kbd(C-c ;)}}} ::

  Toggle the =COMMENT= keyword at the beginning of an entry.

** ASCII/UTF-8 Export
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Exporting to flat files with encoding.
:END:

ASCII export produces an output file containing only plain ASCII
characters.  This is the simplest and most direct text output.  It
does not contain any Org markup.  UTF-8 export uses additional
characters and symbols available in this encoding standards.

#+attr_texinfo: :sep ,
- {{{kbd(C-c C-e t a)}}}, {{{kbd(C-c C-e t u)}}} ::

  Export as an ASCII file with a =.txt= extension.  For =myfile.org=,
  Org exports to =myfile.txt=, overwriting without warning.  For
  =myfile.txt=, Org exports to =myfile.txt.txt= in order to prevent
  data loss.

** HTML Export
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Exporting to HTML.
:END:

Org mode contains an HTML exporter with extensive HTML formatting
compatible with XHTML 1.0 strict standard.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-e h h)}}} ::

  Export as HTML file with a =.html= extension.  For =myfile.org=, Org
  exports to =myfile.html=, overwriting without warning.  {{{kbd(C-c
  C-e h o)}}} exports to HTML and opens it in a web browser.

The HTML export back-end transforms =<= and =>= to =&lt;= and =&gt;=.
To include raw HTML code in the Org file so the HTML export back-end
can insert that HTML code in the output, use this inline syntax:
=@@html:...@@=.  For example:

: @@html:<b>@@bold text@@html:</b>@@

For larger raw HTML code blocks, use these HTML export code blocks:

#+begin_example
,#+HTML: Literal HTML code for export

,#+BEGIN_EXPORT html
  All lines between these markers are exported literally
,#+END_EXPORT
#+end_example

** LaTeX Export
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Exporting to @LaTeX{} and processing to PDF.
:END:

The LaTeX export back-end can handle complex documents, incorporate
standard or custom LaTeX document classes, generate documents using
alternate LaTeX engines, and produce fully linked PDF files with
indexes, bibliographies, and tables of contents, destined for
interactive online viewing or high-quality print publication.

By default, the LaTeX output uses the /article/ class.  You can change
this by adding an option like =#+LATEX_CLASS: myclass= in your file.
The class must be listed in ~org-latex-classes~.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-e l l)}}} ::

  Export to a LaTeX file with a =.tex= extension.  For =myfile.org=,
  Org exports to =myfile.tex=, overwriting without warning.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-e l p)}}} ::

  Export as LaTeX file and convert it to PDF file.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-e l o)}}} ::

  Export as LaTeX file and convert it to PDF, then open the PDF using
  the default viewer.

The LaTeX export back-end can insert any arbitrary LaTeX code, see
[[*Embedded LaTeX]].  There are three ways to embed such code in the Org
file and they all use different quoting syntax.

Inserting in-line quoted with @ symbols:

: Code embedded in-line @@latex:any arbitrary LaTeX code@@ in a paragraph.

Inserting as one or more keyword lines in the Org file:

: #+LATEX: any arbitrary LaTeX code

Inserting as an export block in the Org file, where the back-end
exports any code between begin and end markers:

#+begin_example
,#+BEGIN_EXPORT latex
  any arbitrary LaTeX code
,#+END_EXPORT
#+end_example

** iCalendar Export
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Exporting to iCalendar.
:END:

A large part of Org mode's interoperability success is its ability to
easily export to or import from external applications.  The iCalendar
export back-end takes calendar data from Org files and exports to the
standard iCalendar format.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-e c f)}}} ::

  Create iCalendar entries from the current Org buffer and store them
  in the same directory, using a file extension =.ics=.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-e c c)}}} ::

  Create a combined iCalendar file from Org files in
  ~org-agenda-files~ and write it to
  ~org-icalendar-combined-agenda-file~ file name.

* Publishing
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Create a web site of linked Org files.
:END:

Org includes a publishing management system that allows you to
configure automatic HTML conversion of /projects/ composed of
interlinked Org files.  You can also configure Org to automatically
upload your exported HTML pages and related attachments, such as
images and source code files, to a web server.

You can also use Org to convert files into PDF, or even combine HTML
and PDF conversion so that files are available in both formats on the
server.

For detailed instructions about setup, see the manual. Here is an
example:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq org-publish-project-alist
      '(("org"
         :base-directory "~/org/"
         :publishing-function org-html-publish-to-html
         :publishing-directory "~/public_html"
         :section-numbers nil
         :with-toc nil
         :html-head "<link rel=\"stylesheet\"
                    href=\"../other/mystyle.css\"
                    type=\"text/css\"/>")))
#+end_src

- {{{kbd(C-c C-e P x)}}} ::

  Prompt for a specific project and publish all files that belong to
  it.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-e P p)}}} ::

  Publish the project containing the current file.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-e P f)}}} ::

  Publish only the current file.

- {{{kbd(C-c C-e P a)}}} ::

  Publish every project.

Org uses timestamps to track when a file has changed.  The above
functions normally only publish changed files.  You can override this
and force publishing of all files by giving a prefix argument to any
of the commands above.

* Working with Source Code
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks.
:END:

Org mode provides a number of features for working with source code,
including editing of code blocks in their native major mode,
evaluation of code blocks, tangling of code blocks, and exporting code
blocks and their results in several formats.

A source code block conforms to this structure:

#+begin_example
,#+NAME: <name>
,#+BEGIN_SRC <language> <switches> <header arguments>
  <body>
,#+END_SRC
#+end_example

#+texinfo: @noindent
where:

- =<name>= is a string used to uniquely name the code block,

- =<language>= specifies the language of the code block, e.g.,
  =emacs-lisp=, =shell=, =R=, =python=, etc.,

- =<switches>= can be used to control export of the code block,

- =<header arguments>= can be used to control many aspects of code
  block behavior as demonstrated below,

- =<body>= contains the actual source code.

Use {{{kbd(C-c ')}}} to edit the current code block.  It opens a new
major mode edit buffer containing the body of the source code block,
ready for any edits.  Use {{{kbd(C-c ')}}} again to close the buffer
and return to the Org buffer.

** Using header arguments
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

A header argument is specified with an initial colon followed by the
argument's name in lowercase.

Header arguments can be set in several ways; Org prioritizes them in
case of overlaps or conflicts by giving local settings a higher
priority.

- System-wide header arguments ::

  Those are specified by customizing ~org-babel-default-header-args~
  variable, or, for a specific language {{{var(LANG)}}}
  ~org-babel-default-header-args:LANG~.

- Header arguments in properties ::

  You can set them using =header-args= property (see [[*Properties]])---or
  =header-args:LANG= for language {{{var(LANG)}}}.  Header arguments
  set through properties drawers apply at the sub-tree level on down.

- Header arguments in code blocks ::

  Header arguments are most commonly set at the source code block
  level, on the =BEGIN_SRC= line:

  #+begin_example
  ,#+NAME: factorial
  ,#+BEGIN_SRC haskell :results silent :exports code :var n=0
    fac 0 = 1
    fac n = n * fac (n-1)
  ,#+END_SRC
  #+end_example

  Code block header arguments can span multiple lines using =HEADER=
  keyword on each line.

** Evaluating code blocks
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

Use {{{kbd(C-c C-c)}}} to evaluate the current code block and insert
its results in the Org document.  By default, evaluation is only
turned on for =emacs-lisp= code blocks, however support exists for
evaluating blocks in many languages.  For a complete list of supported
languages see the manual.  The following shows a code block and its
results.

#+begin_example
,#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
  (+ 1 2 3 4)
,#+END_SRC

,#+RESULTS:
: 10
#+end_example

The following syntax is used to pass arguments to code blocks using
the =var= header argument.

: :var NAME=ASSIGN

#+texinfo: @noindent
{{{var(NAME)}}} is the name of the variable bound in the code block
body.  {{{var(ASSIGN)}}} is a literal value, such as a string,
a number, a reference to a table, a list, a literal example, another
code block---with or without arguments---or the results of evaluating
a code block.

** Results of evaluation
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

How Org handles results of a code block execution depends on many
header arguments working together.  The primary determinant, however,
is the =results= header argument.  It controls the /collection/,
/type/, /format/, and /handling/ of code block results.

- Collection ::

  How the results should be collected from the code block.  You may
  choose either =output= or =value= (the default).

- Type ::

  What result types to expect from the execution of the code block.
  You may choose among =table=, =list=, =scalar=, and =file=.  Org
  tries to guess it if you do not provide it.

- Format ::

  How Org processes results.  Some possible values are =code=,
  =drawer=, =html=, =latex=, =link=, and =raw=.

- Handling ::

  How to insert the results once properly formatted.  Allowed values
  are =silent=, =replace= (the default), =append=, or =prepend=.

Code blocks which output results to files---e.g.: graphs, diagrams and
figures---can accept a =:file FILENAME= header argument, in which case
the results are saved to the named file, and a link to the file is
inserted into the buffer.

** Exporting code blocks
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

It is possible to export the /code/ of code blocks, the /results/ of
code block evaluation, /both/ the code and the results of code block
evaluation, or /none/.  Org defaults to exporting /code/ for most
languages.

The =exports= header argument is to specify if that part of the Org
file is exported to, say, HTML or LaTeX formats.  It can be set to
either =code=, =results=, =both= or =none=.

** Extracting source code
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

Use {{{kbd(C-c C-v t)}}} to create pure source code files by
extracting code from source blocks in the current buffer.  This is
referred to as "tangling"---a term adopted from the literate
programming community.  During tangling of code blocks their bodies
are expanded using ~org-babel-expand-src-block~, which can expand both
variable and "Noweb" style references.  In order to tangle a code
block it must have a =tangle= header argument, see the manual for
details.

* Miscellaneous
:PROPERTIES:
:DESCRIPTION: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere.
:END:

** Completion
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

Org has in-buffer completions with {{{kbd(M-TAB)}}}.  No minibuffer is
involved.  Type one or more letters and invoke the hot key to complete
the text in-place.

For example, this command will complete TeX symbols after =\=, TODO
keywords at the beginning of a headline, and tags after =:= in
a headline.


** Structure Templates
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

To quickly insert empty structural blocks, such as =#+BEGIN_SRC=
... =#+END_SRC=, or to wrap existing text in such a block, use

- {{{kbd(C-c C-\,)}}} ::

  Prompt for a type of block structure, and insert the block at point.
  If the region is active, it is wrapped in the block.

** Clean view
:PROPERTIES:
:UNNUMBERED: notoc
:END:

Org's default outline with stars and no indents can become too
cluttered for short documents.  For /book-like/ long documents, the
effect is not as noticeable.  Org provides an alternate stars and
indentation scheme, as shown on the right in the following table.  It
uses only one star and indents text to line with the heading:

#+begin_example
,* Top level headline             |    * Top level headline
,** Second level                  |      * Second level
,*** Third level                  |        * Third level
    some text                    |          some text
,*** Third level                  |        * Third level
    more text                    |          more text
,* Another top level headline     |    * Another top level headline
#+end_example

This kind of view can be achieved dynamically at display time using
Org Indent mode ({{{kbd(M-x org-indent-mode RET)}}}), which prepends
intangible space to each line.  You can turn on Org Indent mode for
all files by customizing the variable ~org-startup-indented~, or you
can turn it on for individual files using

: #+STARTUP: indent

If you want the indentation to be hard space characters so that the
plain text file looks as similar as possible to the Emacs display, Org
supports you by helping to indent (with {{{kbd(TAB)}}}) text below
each headline, by hiding leading stars, and by only using levels 1, 3,
etc to get two characters indentation for each level.  To get this
support in a file, use

: #+STARTUP: hidestars odd

* Export Setup                                                          :noexport:

#+setupfile: doc-setup.org

#+export_file_name: orgguide.texi

#+texinfo_dir_category: Emacs editing modes
#+texinfo_dir_title: Org Guide: (orgguide)
#+texinfo_dir_desc: Abbreviated Org mode manual

* Footnotes

[fn:1] See the variable ~org-special-ctrl-a/e~ to configure special
behavior of {{{kbd(C-a)}}} and {{{kbd(C-e)}}} in headlines.

[fn:2] If you do not want the line to be split, customize the variable
~org-M-RET-may-split-line~.

[fn:3] See also the variable ~org-show-context-detail~ to decide how
much context is shown around each match.

[fn:4] The corresponding in-buffer setting is =#+STARTUP: logdone=.

[fn:5] The corresponding in-buffer setting is =#+STARTUP:
logenotedone=.

[fn:6] As with all these in-buffer settings, pressing {{{kbd(C-c
C-c)}}} activates any changes in the line.

[fn:7] This is quite different from what is normally understood by
/scheduling a meeting/, which is done in Org by just inserting a time
stamp without keyword.

[fn:8] It will still be listed on that date after it has been marked
as done.  If you do not like this, set the variable
~org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done~.

[fn:9] Using capture templates, you get finer control over capture
locations.  See [[*Capture templates]].

[fn:10] If you need one of these sequences literally, escape the =%=
with a backslash.

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